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Vehicle Electrification – Your Battery Warranty

May 5th, 2017

Ever since hybrid cars began to show up on the market in the late 1990s, a big concern of potential buyers has been its powertrain battery system. Unlike a standard car battery the batteries powering the Honda Insight and Toyota Prius work closely with the vehicle’s powertrain, supplying energy to move the vehicle. No one but a mechanic trained in vehicle hybrid systems should ever work on these battery packs.

Many more hybrid models are now on the market including the Ford Escape Hybrid, Toyota Camry Hybrid, hybrid Chevrolet trucks, Ford Fusion Hybrid, Honda Civic Hybrid and various Lexus hybrids. Those models are now being joined by pure electric vehicles including the Tesla Roadster and Nissan LEAF as well as an extended range vehicle, the Chevrolet Volt. With many models to choose from and many more soon to hit the market, the big question is this one: what kind of battery warranty should I expect?

Battery Warranty

There is no stock answer that can be given, as each company produces or supplies their own battery. However, a common theme in hybrid and pure electric battery packs is an eight-year, 100,000 mile warranty. In some cases, especially as mandated by the states, that warranty is for ten years or 150,000 miles, whichever comes first.

Before making a hybrid or pure electric vehicle purchase, study what the vehicle warranty covers. Most include the usual three-year, 36,000 mile or similar bumper to bumper warranty with the battery pack under a separate warranty. Familiarize yourself with what is covered by the warranty and avoid doing anything that may void your warranty. That means entrusting your car to a certified mechanic trained in hybrid or electrification systems which means letting your dealer handling maintenance and repairs.

Battery Replacement

When hybrid vehicles began to show up on the market, replacement batteries were expensive. And, no one new for sure how long the original batteries would last. As it turns out, Toyota reports that there are hybrid vehicles on the road with more than 300,000 miles on the odometer and still using the original battery. Still, if you have to replace the battery and your car is no longer under warranty, check with your dealer to find out battery cost, labor charges and disposal procedures.

By 2020, every manufacturer will have at least one hybrid or pure electric vehicle available for sale. If the technology catches on and costs continue to drop, then vehicle electrification could be commonplace by that time. That’s good news for people who want to drive a more fuel efficient and clean burning vehicle, something today’s engineers are working to bring about.

Auxiliary Battery Systems

May 5th, 2017

Whether in our personal or professional lives, we’ve all experienced that dreaded occasion to where the car battery is dead, or as the English put it… “flat”. In our personal lives this occasion is mostly a nuisance, but it’s quite a different story in our professional lives especially for those of us with critical jobs in public safety, utilities, towing, etc. A dead battery in these professions can literally put lives at stake.

Despite the critical nature of jobs such as public safety, it never ceases to amaze me how increasingly common dead batteries are. In many occasions those dead batteries can simply be chalked up to poor maintenance of terminals, replacements and belt tensions. Others are the result of phantom current draw from the myriad of electronics that constantly sip battery power, even when if the switch is off. Another major reason for flat batteries are technicians maxing out the specified load and not understanding the vehicles charging capability is never constant.

Along with performing proper vehicle maintenance to prevent dead batteries, another great way to mitigate problems is using an auxiliary battery. The use of an auxiliary battery is especially recommended for missions that require operating electronics for extended periods with the engine off, i.e. emergency management, bait cars, drop cars and surveillance vans. Regardless of the mission, on-board electronics should be connected to the auxiliary battery which leaves the vehicles starting battery fully dedicated for normal usage. As a result, starting batteries tend to last longer in terms of years and the auxiliary battery can play a dual role by providing emergency power should the starting battery ever battery fail.

To get the most out of auxiliary batteries and to keep operators safe, there are some simple things you should consider and recommend items you should include in any installation.

1 – Battery Isolator
Perhaps the most important item needed for an auxiliary battery system is a battery isolator. Isolators allow auxiliary batteries to receive a charge from the vehicles electrical system but as the name suggest, isolates it and prevents a back-flow of current and depletion of the auxiliary battery. Advanced battery isolators also give operators the ability to manually override isolation and to assist with emergency jump starting.

2 – Fuses
When adding an auxiliary battery system, a new a circuit is created and in some cases such as a surveillance van, many sub-circuits are created as well. Without compromise, anytime a new circuit is added, proper fusing needs to be installed. For auxiliary battery systems, in general I recommend using a master or a.k.a. limiter fuse in between the auxiliary battery and the vehicles electrical system. Additionally, any sub-circuit originating from the auxiliary battery should have its own dedicated fuse. Fuse sizes are dependent upon total load or in other words amperage demand that will be placed up the new circuit(s) and potential use. For example, an auxiliary system designed to support 40 amps worth of electronics and the potential emergency jump start, should probably use a 150 amp limiter fuse and a separate 50 amp fuse for the sub-circuits. In essence, the fuse size must be larger than the demand by a small margin.

3 – Wiring
Like fuses, the size of wiring will be dependent upon the total load and potential future use. Also like fuses, if the wiring is too small… it will simply burn up, but in this case pose a serious safety hazard. On that note, the bigger wire size (gauge, AWG) the better.

4 – Battery
A perfect battery type to cover various mission needs is an SLA battery (sealed lead acid). SLA batteries are resistant to vibration can be mounted in any orientation, endure temperature extremes and provides a long shelf life for energy. When it comes to battery size, there are a lot to choose from and here again; it will be dependent upon use. Like wiring, get the largest size possible or that the vehicle storage space will afford. The larger the size, the longer it will be able to support operation with engine off and the better it will be able to provide emergency starting power. For reference, SLA batteries are rated in amp hours (aH) which indicates how much amperage it can deliver in a given hour before depletion. A great battery for initial consideration that can serve many application needs is a 60aH battery.

Regardless of the aH rating chosen of an SLA, I highly recommend purchasing a battery with a high maximum discharge rate especially when the potential use for emergency jump starting exist. A battery with maximum discharge rates of 300 amps and higher are an excellent choice. A rule of thumb, SLA batteries with nut & bolt type terminals typically have a desired discharge rate needed for safe jump starting.

Another battery type worth considering is deep cycle marine batteries due to large capacity and ability to sustain high levels of depletion. However, marine batteries are typically larger, not as tolerant to shock and unusual orientations like SLA batteries. A notable exception to the norms of marine batteries, are those offered by Optima which are significantly more rugged and better apt to handle the rigors of public safety driving.

5 – Location
When situating auxiliary battery systems, they can be located nearly anywhere that is practical for mission needs. With some exception, I recommend avoiding placement of gear inside the engine compartments due to excessive heat and of course, lack of space. The most likely spot for sedans are trunks and possibly underneath rear seats. For trucks with limited cargo space, a bed mounted tool box should be considered. Where ever the system is installed, much care should be given to ensure batteries are securely fastened to avoid spillage, short circuits and becoming a heavy projectile during accidents.

6 – Difficulty
In my estimation, installing an auxiliary battery system is easier than installing a car stereo. However, as mentioned there is serious risk involved if done improperly. The whole purpose of an auxiliary system is to avoid risk and to provide great mission capabilities. So I do recommend that before undertaking such an installation that one holds at least basic automotive electrical skills and mechanical aptitude as minor vehicle modification will no doubt be required.

7 – Cost The initial cost of a well-furnished auxiliary battery system should be approximately $600.00. When the benefits are factored in such as eliminating cost associated with emergency jump starts, early battery replacements, equipment failures due to low & high voltages and the new ability to operate electronics without engine power, the net cost could be $0.00 very quickly.

Thanks for reading,

Jake

The Main Parts of Auto Electric Systems

May 5th, 2017

There are some big differences between electric cars and fuel propelled cars. Electric cars are made up of simpler driving structures that provide automotive with the right amount of energy so you can drive on the streets for a reasonable amount of time. However, whatever electric car you may have, they are all comprised of auto electric systems essential for a safe and smooth drive.

There are three most important auto electric parts of a car. These are the motor, the controller and the battery. These must be given attention to if you own an electric car so you would know what to do in case they fail from functioning effectively or if you experience some untoward car breakdowns while on the road.

To begin with, you have to check all auto electric parts before setting out for a journey on the road or gearing up for a holiday break. This is vital to avoid unexpected car breakdowns and untoward failures in car driving.

• The electric motor is the most significant auto electric part in your vehicle. It is the component that is accountable for the driving and propelling of the mobile vehicle. The electric motor is made available in three well-known kinds. These are the permanent magnet DC, DC wound and the AC motor. The AC is the most multifaceted type of electric motor but it is the most proficient. It is more often than not employed in those vehicles that call for further power and control in order to be in motion and go up the vertical hills. Alternatively, the DC wound is the uncomplicated and the most straightforward electric motor type to put in. However, it generates less power and control than the AC one. The DC is from time to time favored for the reason that it has lower price than the others.

• The second highly significant auto electric part is the battery. Despite the fact that a quantity of cars ought to make use of the typical car batteries as a supplier of energy, the more highly developed ones bring into play the Ni batteries since they give more efficient energy source that provides additional assortment of maneuver for the vehicle. These kinds of batteries require less time to be charged and make available more energy for the motor connected.

• Finally, another important auto electric part is the controller. The auto controller is in charge for power running. The controller also is responsible for sensing the quantity of energy considered necessary by the motor. By then, the controller supplies this energy straightforwardly from the batteries with the intention of getting the car to be in motion and move about. The auto controller is very essential for the reason that it brings into lines the maneuver and function of both the battery and the motor.

In a nutshell, you have to be skilled in the mentioned auto electric parts so as to know what causes the breakdown of your car. It is also advised that you seek the help and assistance of highly-skilled auto electricians so that you have the professional detail regarding the auto electric problems that your car may have.

Solar Electricity System: Energy From the Rays of Hope

May 5th, 2017

Solar electricity systems utilize solar radiation, converting it into electrical energy. Solar energy is a renewable energy source whose use is limited only by human ingenuity. Solar power has a wide range of uses and not only man has need for it. In fact, it was long utilized since ancient times. The Romans used solar lighting in their pantheon and in fact this brought implications on reducing energy consumption. A hot conductive surface was also used when fire was not present, providing man the opportunity to cook his meat in the absence of fire. The heat generated from solar energy is a potent bacteriocide and in some cultures, people use the natural rays of the sun to disinfect their food and water supply.

Plants utilize solar energy for their photosynthesis and it is this very finding that man was curious enough to ask himself if it were possible to create a form of useful energy from solar power for his own consumption. In essence, it is safe to say that the solar electricity system was derived from the concept of photosynthesis.

Solar panels are composed of solar cells which contain photovoltaic material to harness solar energy. These photovoltaic materials are either composed of monocrystalline silicon, polycrystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, cadmium telluride, and copper indium selenide. Solar panels are usually situated on the roof and even on the outer wall outside a building provided that the location is situated on a tropical or semitropical area where there is enough sunlight or sunlight is to be expected for most days of the year.

Solar electricity systems are ineffective during night time, cloudy weather, and storms – be it snow or heavy rain. On a massive scale, solar electricity systems have started to become cheaper energy sources and solar electricity generation has the highest power density among all other renewable energy sources. On a small scale, solar electricity systems are still more expensive than most other energy sources.

Surprisingly, research on solar electricity systems has very few funding, thus there is no doubt that there can be a lot of future improvements far beyond what we can expect. Imagine the progress and development of experimental, highly efficient solar cells, achieving wonderful efficiency results of 40 percent. What more could you expect if it was sufficiently funded? Efficiencies are rising at a stunning rate. Oddly enough, the mass production costs have rapidly plummeted. No doubt that we can expect solar energy to be the most widely used energy source in the future. Not only does it virtually not produce any pollution, but it will be affordable as well.

One of the most important implications of the solar electricity system, aside from generating power for a residential area or community, is transportation. Solar-charged vehicles have started to become a big success for their recent feats, just like the solar-powered boat which was capable of crossing the Atlantic on solar power alone. Solar power is a very good alternative to fossil fuel energy sources, namely petroleum. Petroleum has become rather expensive and it intends to stay that way – and it is not even content with its cost – it wants to have even more value.

Perhaps one day when solar electricity systems will be developed to their full potential, we shall no longer be dependent on energy sources which are not only expensive, but are harmful to the environment as well.